Joining a Gang: How to Help Kids Prevent it, How to Tell if Theyve Joined One, How to Help Them Out
While youth gangs are nothing new -- they've been traced back to the early 19th century -- the demographic of a youth gang is something that is constantly changing. Many people stereotype gang members as urban, inner city males from racial minorities, but in fact gangs are a problem in suburbs as well as cities, for all races and for girls as well as boys.
There are about 750,000 gang members in the United States, according to estimates by the U.S. Department of Justice, and one-third of them are under the age of 18. And while it's still true that men account for the majority of gang members-more than 90 percent are male-gang membership among women is becoming increasingly common.
What Exactly is a Gang?
Every gang has its own requirements and characteristics, but the U.S. Department of Justice says that all gangs have one thing in common: "A group must be involved in a pattern of criminal acts to be considered a youth gang."
Similarly, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines a gang as, "A criminal enterprise having an organizational structure, acting as a continuing criminal conspiracy, which employs violence and any other criminal activity to sustain the enterprise."
Additionally, gangs typically:
* Develop around racial and ethnic lines
* Are typically male-dominated with some female members, though female gangs are on the increase
* Center on a specific territory
* Act as an organization that may be part of a larger group
* Display symbols associated with their gang through clothing, tattoos, graffiti, hand signals and language
Why do Kids Join Gangs?
According to a White House fact sheet for the new youth initiative aimed at protecting America's youth from gangs, an overwhelming number of violent U.S. criminals like those in gangs grow up in single-mother households with no father around. It's also been shown that kids who are involved with their family, school and community are less likely to be involved in risky behavior like joining a gang.
This may explain why, generally, kids join gangs to feel like they belong and have a sense of purpose. In fact, kids join gangs for many of the same reasons that kids join any group, like a soccer team or Boy Scouts:
* Looking for a sense of self-worth, belonging and commitment
* Seeking structure and discipline
* A need for recognition, higher status and acceptance
* Excitement and something to do
Additionally, kids may join gangs because of a:
* Need for protection
* Family tradition
* Need for money (kids in gangs can earn cash from drug trades)
How to Keep Your Kids Away From Gangs
Since most kids who join gangs do so because they are looking for a social network, for a group to belong to, ensuring that your child gets plenty of love and support at home and through positive activities is key in keeping them away from gangs.
Such was the case with David Danisa, a young man who could have easily fallen prey to gangs himself as friends around him joined steadily. Instead, Danisa and friend Jurell Spivey joined school programs and even got involved into keeping younger kids out of gangs.
"There's a lot of pressures in high school," says Danisa. "If you have people who are helping you out in programs, you start having more self-respect. You can fight through the hard stuff." And, to put is simply, after your day gets filled up with sports, volunteering and other activities, "You don't have time to do anything bad," Danisa said.
Aside from enrolling your kids in community or school youth programs from an early age, the following tips can also help:
* Encourage your child to think independently
* Take an active interest in his/her life: Be involved!
* Get to know your child's friends and encourage healthy friendships
* Teach your child coping strategies to deal with hard times
* Support your child with words and actions to instill in them a sense of self-esteem and personal responsibility
* Discourage too much exposure to media influences that glorify drugs, sex, gangs and violence to kids
Resources That Can Help
If you suspect your child, friend or family member is in a gang and in need of help, there are many resources available. First, according to the Los Angeles' County Sheriff's Department:
* The member must think and believe that they can get out of the gang, and must want to do it.
* Reduce the amount of time spent with the gang. It's best to do so gradually, rather than trying to sever all ties immediately.
* Replace gang activities with positive activities like sports, the arts, employment, religion, education, volunteering, etc.
* Remove gang tattoos and attire and modify language away from gang communications.
* Create a new set of friends and an alternative support system, such as boys and girls clubs.
* Help other youths in gangs to create a better life away from the gang.
Other helpful resources include:
* National Clearinghouse for Families & Youth
* Family and Youth Services Bureau
* The YMCA
* Your local youth community center
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